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Atoms Radiation And Radiation Protection Solution Manual


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atoms radiation and radiation protection solution manual



Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a form of non-ionizing radiation that is emitted by the sun and artificial sources, such as tanning beds. While it has some benefits for people, including the creation of Vitamin D, it also can cause health risks.


UV radiation is classified into three primary types: ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet C (UVC), based on their wavelengths. Almost all of the UV radiation that reaches earth is UVA though some UVB radiation reaches earth. UVA and UVB radiation can both affect health but UVA penetrates deeper into the skin and is more constant throughout the year.


Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. The two most common types of skin cancer are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. Typically, they form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms because these body parts are the most exposed to UV radiation. Most cases of melanoma, the deadliest kind of skin cancer, are caused by exposure to UV radiation.


The most effective way of protecting medical staff who regularly work in controlled areas is the continuous measurement of the accumulated radiation level in their bodies. To this end, we have performed an exhaustive analysis of the current commercial radiation monitoring instruments, and divided them into two main groups: personal dosimeters and area survey meters. Personal dosimeters are small devices which healthcare workers wear on the body part most exposed to radiation. Thermo-luminescence based solutions are the most widely used technology where, after a period (usually a few weeks), the device is sent to a specialized laboratory to analyze the received doses. Therefore, the measurement is off-line, which restricts its usefulness. On the other hand, area dosimeters measure the radiation doses in real time, with most of them lacking Internet connections or database storage. These large devices are only placed in certain areas of the hospital (for instance, in the Nuclear Medicine department).


A minimum number of people working under ionizing radiation conditions in the healthcare environment are classified as Category A exposed workers, and would be required to be controlled by individual dosimetry. These workers are the following:


The detectors store the energy received from ionizing radiation. In order to know the amount of radiation received by the dosimeter, it is necessary to heat it to a temperature of 300 C, thus releasing the stored energy in the form of light. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the radiation dose received by each detector.


The lapel dosimeter is designed for the measurement of deep personal equivalent doses denoted as Hp (10) and superficial doses called Hp (0.07) [6], as well as for energy discrimination from incident radiation.


The main advantages are its low cost, easy handling, sensitivity, and that it does not depend only on environmental conditions. Furthermore, it is reusable: Once the dosimeter receives the radiation dose during a period of time, it can be employed again. However, its main drawback is related to that the radiation cannot be observed in real time, which negatively impacts on its applicability.


When the film is irradiated, an image of the protective box is projected onto the film. In this way, the amount of radiation received is proportional to the optical density of the film being exposed, compared to the optical density of previously calibrated films.


The main advantage is its functionality. Film can provide information on the exposure conditions such as the direction of the incident radiation or suspected contamination. The main drawback is that the reading is estimated, not immediate, and not reusable. It also depends on external conditions, such as humidity.


It consists of a housing that incorporates a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass in the center. The RPL crystal material is activated silver with crystallized phosphate glass (P2O5). When this material is exposed to radiation, stable luminescent centers are created in the silver ions, denoted as Ag and Ag2+. These ions emit light when stimulated. To produce this stimulation, the crystal is irradiated with ultraviolet light, measuring the light emitted with a photo multiplier tube. So, the intensity of the light emitted will be proportional to the radiation dose received.


These dosimeters incorporate a sheet of carbon-activated aluminum oxide, located between filters, to obtain qualitative information on the conditions during exposure. To know the amount of radiation dose received, the aluminum oxide is stimulated at specific frequencies by means of a laser. In this way, the intensity of the light emitted will be proportional to the dose of radiation received.


It uses electronic sensors and signal processing, and shows the radiation dose normally received in microSievert (µSv). This dosimeter either has a miniature Geiger-Müller tube or is equipped with silicone sensors.


The main advantage is that it can continuously display the accumulated dose on the screen, so it is often used as an alternative in emergency cases in which it is necessary to know a specific amount of radiation within a short period of time. Additionally, it can incorporate alarms if a previously programmed accumulated radiation dose is exceeded during a certain period of time. It works with batteries. The main drawbacks are the cost and the lack of connectivity.


It is a small ionization chamber, cylindrical (approximately 2 cm3) in shape, filled with air and equipped with a central electrode. It is shaped like a ballpoint pen and contains an ionization chamber with a quartz fiber electrode that functions as an electroscope. By means of an optical arrangement, the response of the radiation action can be observed.


The main advantage of this equipment is that the reading of this dosimeter is straightforward and very easy to use. The main drawback is the fact that it has a poor range of use and low sensitivity compared to other dosimeter systems. It requires daily radiation monitoring and daily charging. Occasionally, it can even be discharged when hit. Therefore, for some years now, its use has been reduced significantly.


The solid state detector, also known as Semiconductor Radiation Detector, is a radiation detector in which a semiconducting material (silicon or germanium) constitutes the detecting medium. Solid detectors have higher densities that provide reasonable absorption probabilities for a normal detector size. Two types will be described: (1) scintillating counters and (2) semiconductor detectors:


There is a wide variety of available scintillators and photomultiplier tubes, depending on the type of application. The properties to be considered in the selection of the material include the fraction of incident energy that appears as light, efficiency (the probability of radiation being absorbed), response time and energy resolution.


Semiconductor solid materials (germanium and silicon) are alternatives to scintillators for building radiation detectors. When a type-p semiconducting material is in contact with a type-n semiconducting material, the electrons of the type-n semiconductor can diffuse through the junction in the type-p semiconductor and combine with the vacant ones. In the vicinity of the p-n junction, the charge conductors are neutralised, creating a region called the depletion zone. The diffusion of electrons from the n-type region leaves behind ionized, fixed donor states, while in the p-type region there are fixed acceptor states charged negatively. Thus, an electric field is created, which ultimately makes diffusion phenomenon advances impossible. A typical p-n junction of a diode is formed.


If any radiation penetrates into the depletion zone and creates an electron-hole pair, the result is very similar to that of an ionization chamber. The electrons flow in one direction and the vacancies/holes in the other. The final number of collected electrons creates an electronic pulse whose amplitude is proportional to the energy of the radiation.


During this period of time, in which the CND estimates the level of radiation received by the dosimeter, health personnel will have another dosimeter made available to measure the radiation of the following month. So, a monthly radiation level is obtained and there is no possibility of knowing specific periods of time with higher doses during this time because the radiation dose is accumulated.


On the other hand, there is an important concern regarding data storage. These types of devices store the average radiation values in specific temporal periods. Data are released after each period to restrict data storage. To carry out a later evaluation of emitted radiation, it will not be possible to access radiation values outside of the current period.


As a general approach, the radiation is measured with a commercial Geiger-Müller tube [18], receiving two values: (i) the effective dose-rate value (µSv/h) and (ii) the counts per minute (CPM). These values are stored in two redundant databases: one hosted on a remote web server and the second in a database implemented in a Raspberry Pi [19] (localhost), which in addition, provides memory storage, processing and connectivity. Note that this commercial detector can be replaced by another; without thereby the system functionality lessen. Therefore, it is not an objective of this work to characterize and study this sensor, tackling these concerns in future works. For instance, it should be interesting to model the GM directivity, to later implement it in the Raspberry. Furthermore, in the case of using detectors such as the solid state ones (because the application requires it), environmental parameters (temperature, pressure, humidity, etc.) must be considered to adjust its operation. As in previous case, the detector adjustment will be developed in the corresponding software module of the Raspberry. Under these premises, to have of a COST-based system facilitates the design of specific solutions in accordance with application or service requirements.


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