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Driver Pixelview Tv Tuner Cardl


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Driver Pixelview Tv Tuner Cardl



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More on Pixelview Tv Tuner DriverData Added 1: June 02, 2013The bktr driver is for TV Tuner Cards and Video Capture Cards using the Bt848, 849 and 878 chipset.It runs on FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD BSD LicenseSize: 0 License: FreewareData Added 1: February 25, 2010Mach64 video4linux2 is a video4linux device driver for older Mach64 TV tuner cards. ATI Mach64 V4L module.Size: 85.0 KB License: FreewareData Added 1: February 25, 2010pvrusb is a Linux driver for the WinTV PVR USB (not the plain WinTV USB), a USB MPEG2 encoder with a TV tuner. Linux USB PVR Driver.Size: 9.0 KB License: FreewareData Added 1: May 24, 2007Functionality - Capture to AVI or WMV with selected codec or profile - Option to capture through temporary file (direct from capture devices without recompression) to avoid drop frames during recompression. Split capture file by size to override filesize limitations.


If the driver listed is not the right version or operating system, search our driver archive for the correct version. Enter PixelVision pixelview pv-bt878p+w/FM into the search box above and then submit. In the results, choose the best match for your PC and operating system.


  • Abstract:Hopefully, this article will help people who'd like to consider writingdevice drivers for tuner cards, and others who're generally interestedin how TV Tuner cards work.1 Amateur Acrobatics.It's hectic at work today. You have a hundred emails to reply to. There'sthat quality analysis report to submit this afternoon, a businesspresentation to prepare for the PR team, and a whole bunch of codeto sift through for formatting errors. And then there's that favouriteTV program that you can't miss out on by any chance. What do you do? Switch on that TV tuner card of course. And watch the TV programin a window all by itself at the top right corner of your computerscreen. All work and no play indeed! Now you can minimize the videowindow out of sight whenever the boss decides to take a peek overyour shoulder. Or you could have it running full screen and beckonat him to come over and have a look if he's a fan too. ;-) Ah! Thevagaries of technology!The Linux platform supports a good number of tuner cards, as wellas web cameras and an assortment of such multimedia devices. And asin every other operating system, the tasks of application programsand the kernel proper, are well demarcated and cut out distinctly.Video4Linux (or V4L), as the technology is called, is still evolvingfrom a draft version 1, to a more robust version 2. On the way, lotsof device drivers have been developed, primarily around the brooktreechip-set, but now increasingly around other models as well. Applicationprogrammers focus on preparing easy GUI based interfaces for the user,either for watching TV, or recording to disk or decoding and readingteletext and so on and so forth. For TV viewing, tasks such as preparinga window of just the right size on screen, requesting the relevantdevice driver to fill it in with live video (overlay), resizing theviewing area and asking the device driver to adjust the overlay sizeaccordingly, passing on user requests to tune into a specific channelor to change the input from tuner to AV mode, or simply mute sound- these are responsibilities of the application programmer. The applicationtherefore sits as a front end to the tuner driver, and passes on requestsfrom the user to the driver in a previously agreed upon manner, calledan Application Programmers Interface (API). This is explained in detail later.Device Driver programmers, on theother hand, concentrate on translating user requests as mentionedabove, into hardware instructions to the specific tuner card. Theyalso make sure that they communicate with applications using the V4LAPI. Device drivers therefore, sit in between the hardware and theapplication, taking commands from them, translating them, and passingthem on to the underlying hardware, in machine specific jargon.Over the next couple of pages, you and I are going to try each others'patience . We're going to show each other, among other things, howTV tuner cards work, what they're made of, what types there are, howto make them work in Linux etc etc etc. I say "show each"other, because in attempting to put this article together, I've hadto do a bit of research myself, and that's because of you, dear Reader!This is mutual then; so grab a piece of paper and a pen, sit back,and read on.Warning: Do not nod off. You're going to have a test afterward.Keywords: PCI bus, I2C bus, IF (Intermediate Frequency), Video Processor,Frame Buffer, DMA, IRQ.12 Tuner Cards Undressed. Alright, lets find out what a TV tuner card looks like. Typically,you'd spy at least three functional chips on board.2.1 The Tuner moduleThe tuner "chip", is actually a whole board withall the Radio Frequency Components mounted on it, and nicely wrappedup in silver foil, I mean, protective shielding. Take a look at thediagram. Tuner modules come in distinctive packaging, which oftenlook very much like each other. Your antenna cable goes right intothe socket at one end of the tuner module. The job of the tuner module,is to do all the Radio Frequency mixing magic, which tunes into aspecific TV programme. Whatever frequency the TV programme be on,it is converted into a pre-determined intermediate frequency (IF).This "pre-determined" frequency is actually a realmess, because of historic (political ?) reasons. Each TV system (eg:PAL, SECAM, NTSC, etc.) has a unique IF. Whatever the IF is, the tunertakes care of one, and only one job - it takes in all the zillionsof possible frequencies of radio waves in the universe, and at yourcommand, filters out just the right TV programme for you. In the ''I2Csection" 5, we'll find out how you "command"the tuner module to tune into your favourite Sports Channel. 2.2 The Video Processor a.k.a TV decoderThe IF which comes from the tuner module, needs to be decoded, andtransformed into a viewable format. This is the job of the Video Processor.Viewable Formats, again, due to historic reasons, come in variousshapes and sizes. You've got the plain old bitmap format, palletizedand planarized (uh, whatever does that mean ?) VGA format, RGB (forRed Green Blue) format, YUV Format (and its subtle variants) and ofcourse, various proprietary formats. If you're keen at reading betweenthe lines, you might have guessed that the "transformation"mentioned above, includes demodulation and Analog to Digital Conversion- which is the whole point of the TV tuner card anyway. When you watchTV on your Computer Screen, what you're actually looking at is DigitizedVideo Data from the Video Processor being displayed by your VGA adapter.Right, lets break that up into two steps: Video Processor Digitizes Video Data and dumps it into the "framebuffer".

  • VGA adapter fetches Video data from the frame buffer, and displaysit on screen.

  • Before we look at the details of how that happens, we need to understandframe buffers. Frame Buffers are also called video buffers or frameRAM and usually reside on the VGA card ( experts please bear withme and ignore AGP for the moment). API figureAny data within the frame buffer, is immediately reflected on thescreen. This is the job of the VGA controller. If you want to displaysomething on the screen, all you need to do is to dump some data intothe frame buffer. Voila! You can immediately see it on screen. Onmost platforms, this will involve just a plain memory to memory copy,because the frame buffer is mapped into the physical memory addressspace, just like any other RAM. However on a system which implementssome sort of memory protection, applications may not be allowed directaccess to system RAM. In Linux, this is controlled by means of themmap() system call in conjunction with the /dev/ram devicenode or the frame buffer device driver. Check the manual page of mmap()for details. Of course, for this to work sensibly, the VGA controllerhas to agree with you about what you wanted to display, and what youwrote into the frame buffer, and where. This is done by "settingthe VGA mode". By setting the VGA "mode",the meaning of every bit of data in the frame ram, is now known tothe VGA controller. For example, if the VGA mode is set to "640x480"at 8 bpp. The VGA controller knows two things about the display:The screen is displayed as 480 rows, each row being made up of 640horizontal dots (or pixels).

  • Each dot displayed on the screen is represented by a correspondingbyte (8 bits) within the frame buffer. Hence the acronym 8 bpp, whichstands for 8 Bits Per Pixel.

  • Here's another possibility - the pixel format. Every pixel has twoproperties associated with it, namely brightness and colour. Differentmethods of representing pixels have evolved over the years. The mostpopular among them are the RGB format and the YUV format. Explainingeach is beyond the scope of our discussion, but the details are trivialand allow us to proceed. A complete description of the our video modesetting would therefore be "640x480" resolutionat "8 bpp" depth, in "RGB" format.So we'll need at least 640 x 480 bytes of frame buffer size, to representone such screen.API figurePicture then, the typical tuner card in question. It has been instructedto tune into a particular channel, capture the video data from itpixel by pixel into some digital format (eg: 8 bpp or YUV), and todump it into RAM. This procedure is called "video capture".Here are a few possibilities of video capture: If the RAM in question is the video buffer, you can immediately seethe TV broadcast on the screen. This procedure is called "videooverlay".

  • If the RAM mentioned here is separate RAM, or system RAM we'll needto cart all the data by DMA, into the frame buffer. DMA stands forDirect Memory Access, and is described in some detail later on, inthe section on PCI buses. Once the DMA commences, we can begin towatch TV, and we say we've got "video overlay" working.

  • Whether system RAM or frame RAM, captured video data can be dumpedonto disk. This is called video acquisition. Here too, DMA can beused to speed things up. So we could actually even cut a VCD out ofvideo grabbed via the tuner card. Incidentally, the decision on whetherto use DMA to move data to the disk, is the responsibility of thedisk device driver, and is completely out of the purview of our discussion.

  • The tuner module is busy demodulating RF into IF. The video processorhas an Analog to Digital Converter, which makes samples out of everypixel, and the samples are assembled into frames within RAM with thehelp of suitable control signals from the the Video Processor. Inthis article, we'll consider a very simple video processor as an example- the ITT VPX3224D.2.3 The Audio ProcessorTuner Cards typically handle sound in two different ways. The firstmethod uses the audio processor to demodulate sound from the IF (IFcontains both audio and video information). The audio signal thusobtained is routed to an external audio jack, from where one wouldneed to re-route it to the line input of a separate sound card bymeans of a suitable external cable. If you're not wealthy enough toown a sound card, the line input of your hi-fi set will do :-). The second approach is for the audio processor to demodulate soundfrom the IF, convert it into Digital Samples, and use techniques suchas DMA (DMA is explained in the section on "PCI buses")to move these Samples to the sound card via the internal system bus(eg: The PCI bus), and from there, to use the sound card to reconvertthe digital samples back to the audio signal. This method is morecomplicated, but more flexible, as the TV sound levels are controllableon the tuner card itself. The first method can avail of that luxuryonly by talking to the sound driver of the separate sound card. Eitherway, let's sum up our requirements, and what is required of us ascompetent device driver writers for tuner cards. 2.3.1 What is required of us:We need to provide applications with an Interface of functions, calledthe Applications Programmers' Interface (API).

  • The API should provide an interface which hides the details of programmingthe tuner card hardware from video for Linux applications.

  • Application requests via the API must be appropriately translatedinto hardware requests to the tuner hardware.

  • Hardware requests can be broadly classified as shown below: Requests to the tuner module.eg: Tune into given frequency, Change IF etc.

  • Requests to the video processor.eg: Start/Stop video capture, Change mode between Teletext and TV,Set capture buffer location, Change between TV standards ('norms'in tech speak) such as PAL, SECAM, NTSC. etc.

  • Requests to the audio processor.eg: Mute audio, Switch on/off stereo, Volume settings etc.

  • Video Window Control.eg: Switch on/off video window, position/resize window, place it under/overother overlapping windows, implement chroma keying or clipping (describedin the next section) etc.

  • In the next section, "What a driver wants", we'llsee that a standard hardware independent API is already defined forthe Linux kernel. In addition, the kernel manages parts of the APIand also manages a /proc tree entry. A /proc tree entry essentiallyprovides on the fly information about registered device drivers tocurious applications. This means, that our responsibility as devicedriver writers is alleviated somewhat, and we don't need to wastetime on bookkeeping, which is a drab affair anyway. (Care to explainsprintf() to me ??? :-) )2.3.2 Our Requirements:We'd like to have kernel functions to probe the card via the PCI interface.

  • We'd like to have kernel functions to take over the details of theI2C protocol with which we talk with the chips on the tuner card.

  • We need DMA functions to tell the kernel to move about video datawithout lots of overhead (ie, without getting your mouse pointer totake a nap while a frame of video is being fetched).

Hmm.... this leads us to an interesting bit in our driver design -snooping around for tools within the Linux kernel.3 What a driver wants.Alan Cox has written an excellent article on the Video For Linux APIfor capture cards in Linux. It comes with the kernel documentation(Documentation/DocBook/videobook.tmpl)2 and covers many issues connected with the Video4Linux API. What itdoes not cover are details of the tuner capture process. Althoughattempting to cover details about all varieties of TV capture devicesin a single article is impossible, a good share of the tuner cards(I cannot vouch for web cameras, etc, which plug into the USB port)available may be expected to conform to what is presented here.linux/videodev.h3 is the authoritative reference for the V4L API. We will thereforeavoid a detailed description of the V4L API here. Any conceptual detailsabout it may be made out from the document by Alan Cox mentioned above.Moreover the V4L API is an evolving standard. What holds good today,may not be applicable tommorow.3.1 Talking to the driver.First, lets take a look at the mechanism involved in communicationbetween application and device driver. If you already know about characterdevices, this is a repetition, and you may safely skip this topic. In every Unix system, the /dev subdirectory holds special files calleddevice nodes. Each device node is associated with a specific devicenumber registered in the kernel. In Linux, the video4linux driveris registered as device number 81. By convention, the name of thenode associated with this device number is /dev/video0. See (Documentation/devices.txt)for details about numbering device nodes. The node /dev/video0, ifnonexistent, may be created with the mknod command from the root shellas shown below:root@maverick# mknod /dev/video0 c 81 0Three simple ways of accessing the driver from user space4, are immediately obvious from the above discussion: The open, closeand read system calls. If video capture is supported by the driver,the following code snippet must be able to read captured data anddump it into STDOUT. Alas, if you cannot understand programming inthe 'C' language, its time to pick up Kerningan's and Richie's ``TheC Programming Language'', before you continue reading this document.------------- Code Snippet ------------ #include #include #include #include #include main(){int fd;char *buffer;/* Lets allocate as big a buffer as we can. */buffer = malloc(65535);/* Open the device node for reading */if((fd = open("/dev/video0", O_RDONLY))


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